In the early 1990s, Allison had been studying a protein called CTLA-4, which sits in the outer layer - the membrane - of an active T-cell and behaves like an off-switch. The result is dramatically improved outcomes for some cancer patients and an explosion of research into ways to build on progress made to date.
Antibodies against PD-1 have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an investigational new drug and developed for the treatment of cancer.
"I never dreamed my research would take the direction it has", Allison adds.
"This year's #NobelPrize constitutes a landmark in our fight against cancer".
"Targeted therapies don't cure cancer, but immunotherapy is curative, which is why many consider it the biggest advance in a generation", Allison said in a 2015 interview.
The discoveries by Allison, 70, and Honjo, 76, "absolutely paved the way for a new approach to cancer treatment", Dr. Jedd Wolchok, chief of the melanoma and immunotherapeutics service at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in NY, told The Associated Press. Carter announced in 2016 that he no longer needed treatment.
Prof Honjo said the award came "completely out of the blue" and "of course, I was very happy, delighted at the same time, but shocked".
"I'm honored and humbled to receive this prestigious recognition", Allison said in a written statement.
Dr. Otis W. Brawley, a close friend of Allison's, said the Nobel committee usually waits about ten years to make sure a scientific discovery "sticks as being really important".
"I want to continue my research... so that this immune therapy will save more cancer patients than ever", he told reporters at the University of Kyoto where he is based.
Allison started his career at MD Anderson in 1977, arriving as one of the first employees of a new basic science research center located in Smithville, Texas.
The prizes for physics, chemistry, and peace will also be announced this week.
Meanwhile, the fact that the literature prize will not be handed over this year has grabbed several headlines.
Medicine is the first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year.
Initially, Lindsay offers to take the entire family, but then she changes her mind and tells the woman, "Not your husband". Towards the end of the video the whole situation gets a bit physical, with the mother appearing to hit Lohan.
Currently, the death toll is at 384 and counting following a devastating magnitude 7.5 quake that hit Indonesia this weekend. Indonesian men walk past the wreckage of a auto following earthquakes and a tsunami in Palu , Central Sulawesi , Indonesia.
The parents of a missing young boy with autism continue to plead for his return, days after he vanished in a North Carolina park . An FBI dive team plans to search the lake, using different equipment than what had been used in previous searches for Maddox.
Earlier in the day, MacNaughton indicated to reporters waiting outside the PM's office that a deal was around the corner. However, a frosty relationship between Trump and Trudeau has made things more complicated recently.
Russia's foreign ministry has previously denounced Bellingcat, alleging the group is related to Western intelligence agencies. The pair survived the attack but two more people were poisoned and one of the victims, Dawn Sturgess, died in July.
However, Trump's comments Wednesday seem to confirm that China is actively interfering now. "From what I hear, if you look at Mr. China's foreign minister shrugged when he heard Trump's statement via translation at the Security Council.
Ford concluded by saying it was "not my responsibility to determine whether Mr Kavanaugh deserves to sit on the Supreme Court". Kavanaugh said in a statement released by the White House, "This is ridiculous and from the Twilight Zone".
While Woods won the PGA Tour Championship, he did not win the FedEx Cup and the $10 million bonus that goes with it. The 14-time major victor signaled that he had turned a corner after years of pain and disappointment.
The committee has said the probe should be limited to "current credible allegations" against Kavanaugh and be finished by Friday. The person was not authorized to discuss the matter publicly and spoke on condition of anonymity.
While it won't be the end of the world if we don't win in France, it would be really nice to stop them building any more momentum. He clearly relishes the charged atmosphere of a Ryder Cup , having lost only one of nine matches over his first two appearances.
Ford described at the hearing how the alleged assault at Kavanaugh's hands impacted her, and how it continues to impact her today. Lindsey Graham , his voice rising in anger, called the hearing the "most unethical sham since I've been in politics".
Tesla shares spike after Elon Musk settles with SEC
Tesla saw its stock price plunging after the SEC filed a lawsuit against Elon Musk over his now infamous "funding secured" tweet . Tesla itself has also been slapped with a $20 million fine by the SEC , making Musk's tweet one of the most expensive in history.
How to Watch the Kavanaugh-Ford Hearing Live
In her testimony , Ford said she was "100%" certain that Kavanaugh was the person who committed the early 1980s assault. Ford recalled that Kavanaugh and Judge were "extremely inebriated" at the time and had "clearly been drinking prior".
First 'X-Men: Dark Phoenix' Trailer Officially Released
Following on the tail of its ominous predecessor, Apocalypse , the Dark Phoenix trailer also promises end of the world antics. That wasn't necessarily a given, seeing as this is the second attempt to translate the Dark Phoenix story to film.